What this is

This is a user-friendly version of the project's structure (compared to the amalgamation that has become specifications which is just a list of design decisions and isn't actually helpful at all for understanding the code). This will follow the line of logic that the program would run through.

Building/Setup

  • npm run dev runs the TypeScript compiler in watch mode, meaning that any changes you make to the code will automatically reload the bot.
  • This will take all the files in src (where all the code is) and compile it into dist which is what the program actually uses.
    • If there's a runtime error, dist\commands\test.js:25:30 for example, then you have to into dist instead of src, then find the line that corresponds.

Launching

When you start the program, it'll run the code in index (meaning both src/index.ts and dist/index.js, they're the same except that dist/<...>.js is compiled). The code in index will call setup and check if data/config.json exists, prompting you if it doesn't. It'll then run initialization code.

Structure

  • commands contains all the commands.
  • defs contains static definitions.
  • core contains the foundation of the program. You won't need to worry about this unless you're modifying pre-existing behavior of the Command class for example or add a function to the library.
  • events contains all the events. Again, you generally won't need to touch this unless you're listening for a new Discord event.

The Command Class

A valid command file must be located in commands and export a default Command instance. Assume that we're working with commands/money.ts.

import Command from "../core/command";
export default new Command({
//...
});

The run property can be either a function or a string. If it's a function, you get one parameter, $ which represents the common library (see below). If it's a string, it's a variable string.

  • %author% pings the person who sent the message.
  • %prefix% gets the bot's current prefix in the selected server.
import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
run: "%author%, make sure to use the prefix! (%prefix)",
});

...is equal to...

import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
import { getPrefix } from "../core/structures";
export default new Command({
async run($: CommonLibrary): Promise<any> {
$.channel.send(
`${$.author.toString()}, make sure to use the prefix! (${getPrefix(
$.guild
)}
)`

);
},
});

Now here's where it gets fun. The Command class is a recursive structure, containing other Command instances as properties.

  • subcommands is used for specific keywords for accessing a certain command. For example, $eco pay has a subcommand of pay.
import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
subcommands: {
pay: new Command({
//...
}),
},
});

There's also user which listens for a ping or a Discord ID, <@237359961842253835> and 237359961842253835 respectively. The argument will be a User object.

import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
user: new Command({
async run($: CommonLibrary): Promise<any> {
$.debug($.args[0].username); // "WatDuhHekBro"
},
}),
});

There's also number which checks for any number type except Infinity, converting the argument to a number type.

import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
number: new Command({
async run($: CommonLibrary): Promise<any> {
$.debug($.args[0] + 5);
},
}),
});

And then there's any which catches everything else that doesn't fall into the above categories. The argument will be a string.

import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
any: new Command({
async run($: CommonLibrary): Promise<any> {
$.debug($.args[0].toUpperCase());
},
}),
});

Of course, maybe you just want to get string arguments regardless, and since everything is an optional property, so you'd then just include any and not subcommands, user, or number.

Other Properties

  • description: The description for that specific command.
  • endpoint: A boolean determining whether or not to prevent any further arguments. For example, you could prevent $money daily too many arguments.
  • usage: Provide a custom usage for the help menu. Do note that this is relative to the subcommand, so the below will result in $money pay <user> <amount>.
import Command from "../core/command";
import { CommonLibrary } from "../core/lib";
export default new Command({
subcommands: {
pay: new Command({
usage: "<user> <amount>",
}),
},
});
  • permission: The permission to restrict the current command to. You can specify it for certain subcommands, useful for having $money be open to anyone but not $money admin. If it's null (default), the permission will inherit whatever was declared before (if any). The default value is NOT the same as Command.PERMISSIONS.NONE.
  • aliases: A list of aliases (if any).

Alternatives to Nesting

For a lot of the metadata properties like description, you must provide them when creating a new Command instance. However, you can freely modify and attach subcommands, useful for splitting a command into multiple files.

import pay from "./subcommands/pay";
const cmd = new Command({
description: "Handle your money."
});
cmd.subcommands.set("pay", pay);
cmd.run = async($: CommonLibrary): Promise<any> {
$.debug($.args);
};
cmd.any = new Command({
//...
});
export default cmd;

Error Handling

Any errors caused when using await or just regular synchronous functions will be automatically caught, you don't need to worry about those. However, promises must be caught manually. For example, $.channel.send("") will throw an error because you can't send empty messages to Discord, but since it's a promise, it'll just fade without throwing an error. There are two ways to do this:

  • $.channel.send("").catch($.handler.bind($))
  • $.channel.send("").catch(error => $.handler(error))

The Common Library

This is the container of functions available without having to import core/lib, usually as $. When accessing this from a command's run function, it'll also come with shortcuts to other properties.

Custom Wrappers

  • $(5) = new NumberWrapper(5)
  • $("text") = new StringWrapper("text")
  • $([1,2,3]) = new ArrayWrapper([1,2,3])

Custom Logger

  • $.log(...)
  • $.warn(...)
  • $.error(...)
  • $.debug(...)
  • $.ready(...) (only meant to be used once at the start of the program)

Convenience Functions

This modularizes certain patterns of code to make things easier.

  • $.paginate(): Takes a message and some additional parameters and makes a reaction page with it. All the pagination logic is taken care of but nothing more, the page index is returned and you have to send a callback to do something with it.
const pages = ["one", "two", "three"];
const msg = await $.channel.send(pages[0]);
$.paginate(msg, $.author.id, pages.length, (page) => {
msg.edit(pages[page]);
});
  • $.prompt(): Prompts the user about a decision before following through.
const msg = await $.channel.send("Are you sure you want to delete this?");
$.prompt(msg, $.author.id, () => {
delete this; // Replace this with actual code.
});
  • $.getMemberByUsername(): Gets a user by their username. Gets the first one then rolls with it.
  • $.callMemberByUsername(): Convenience function to handle cases where someone isn't found by a username automatically.
$.callMemberByUsername($.message, $.args.join(" "), (member) => {
$.channel.send(`Your nickname is ${member.nickname}.`);
});

Dynamic Properties

These will be accessible only inside a Command and will change per message.

  • $.args: A list of arguments in the command. It's relative to the subcommand, so if you do $test this 5, 5 becomes $.args[0] if this is a subcommand. Args are already converted, so a number subcommand would return a number rather than a string.
  • $.client: message.client
  • $.message: message
  • $.channel: message.channel
  • $.guild: message.guild
  • $.author: message.author
  • $.member: message.member

Wrappers

This is similar to modifying a primitive object's prototype without actually doing so.

NumberWrapper

  • .pluralise(): A substitute for not having to do amount === 1 ? "singular" : "plural". For example, $(x).pluralise("credit", "s") will return "1 credit" and/or "5 credits" respectively.
  • .pluraliseSigned(): This builds on .pluralise() and adds a sign at the beginning for marking changes/differences. $(0).pluraliseSigned("credit", "s") will return "+0 credits".

StringWrapper

  • .replaceAll(): A non-regex alternative to replacing everything in a string. $("test").replaceAll('t', 'z') = "zesz".
  • .toTitleCase(): Capitalizes the first letter of each word. $("this is some text").toTitleCase() = "This Is Some Text".

ArrayWrapper

  • .random(): Returns a random element from an array. $([1,2,3]).random() could be any one of those elements.
  • .split(): Splits an array into different arrays by a specified length. $([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]).split(3) = [[1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9],[10]].

Other Library Functions

These do have to be manually imported, which are used more on a case-by-case basis.

  • formatTimestamp(): Formats a Date object into your system's time. YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
  • formatUTCTimestamp(): Formats a Date object into UTC time. YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS
  • botHasPermission(): Tests if a bot has a certain permission in a specified guild.
  • parseArgs(): Turns call test "args with spaces" "even more spaces" into ["call", "test", "args with spaces", "even more spaces"], inspired by the command line.
  • parseVars(): Replaces all % args in a string with stuff you specify. For example, you can replace all nop with asm, and register %nop% will turn into register asm. Useful for storing strings with variables in one place them accessing them in another place.
  • isType(): Used for type-checking. Useful for testing any types.
  • select(): Checks if a variable matches a certain type and uses the fallback value if not. (Warning: Type checking is based on the fallback's type. Be sure that the "type" parameter is accurate to this!)
  • Random: An object of functions containing stuff related to randomness. Random.num is a random decimal, Random.int is a random integer, Random.chance takes a number ranging from 0 to 1 as a percentage. Random.sign takes a number and has a 50-50 chance to be negative or positive. Random.deviation takes a number and a magnitude and produces a random number within those confines. (5, 2) would produce any number between 3 and 7.

Other Core Functions

  • permissions::hasPermission(): Checks if a Member has a certain permission.
  • permissions::getPermissionLevel(): Gets a Member's permission level according to the permissions enum defined in the file.
  • structures::getPrefix(): Get the current prefix of the guild or the bot's prefix if none is found.

Other Core Files

  • core/permissions: Contains all the permission roles and checking functions.
  • core/structures: Contains all the code handling dynamic JSON data. Has a one-to-one connection with each file generated, for example, Config which calls super("config") meaning it writes to data/config.json.
  • core/storage: Handles most of the file system operations, all of the ones related to data at least.